blood cancer

Blood Cancer- Causes, Types, Treatment, Symptoms & Signs

To protect ourselves from health-related issues and to get rid of any serious disease such as blood cancer. what we need to have the most is the right knowledge regarding every aspect of that particular disease. Hereby, you can know everything about the fatal blood disease -cancer. From its causes to symptoms and treatment, we are providing an apt description of everything.

Let’s start by understanding the disease itself.

Our blood is formed by different cell types including red and white blood cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen, white blood cells fight infection and platelets help blood clot. All these originate from stem cells. These very stem cells divide and mature they develop into any one of the blood cells. Problems occurring in this process are the main causes of cancer. The types of cancer also depend upon the nature of these problems.

These problems can make your cells malfunction. At times they may produce immature cells which are unable to function properly in large numbers. Also, they can clog up the bone marrow and put a halt on the functions of other cells too.

Broadly blood cancer is of three types:

Leukemia

Lymphoma

Myeloma

If you are able to identify the early signs of cancer you will get more chances of better treatment at early stages. This is because forewarned is forearmed.

It can bring you varied health issues which are the early signs of blood cancer. Some of the symptoms are common in every cancer however some are specific to blood cancer.

The vague and non-specific nature of its symptoms makes it difficult to recognize it. Though if you will keep an intense observation you will get to know them. Some of the main symptoms of blood cancer are listed below:

  • unnecessary weight loss
  • abnormal fatigue
  • easily bleed or bruise
  • enlargement of lymph mode
  • excessive fever and sweating
  • breathlessness
  • pain in bones and joints
  • sudden skin related problems

In case you are confronting these issues or if you someone is facing them, better visit a specialist

The best way to acknowledge the symptoms is to remember them through an acronym. The best acronym which has been used in this context is the TEST.

T– Tiredness

E– Excessive sweating

S– Sore joints and bones

T– the Terrible case of abnormal bruising or bleeding

Furthermore, you can get into a deep analysis of such signs by knowing specific symptoms of varied types of cancer separately.

Symptoms of leukemia

In this case, the health of the patients deteriorates acutely

  • excessive fatigue and general weakness
  • anemia
  • extreme sweating in the day to day functions
  • vulnerability to infections

leukaemia

Symptoms of lymphoma

In this type of cancer, swelling is the main sign as the lymphatic cells are affected. However, the swelling remains painless.

  • Nausea
  • Food aversion
  • Fullness of abdomen
  • Night sweating
  • Abnormal weight loss

Lymphoma

 

Symptoms of myeloma

  1. Immense pain in back/ribs
  2. Pain in chest
  3. Susceptibility to infection
  4. Breathlessness
  5. Bout of numbness
  6. The sudden occurrence of kidney-related issues

myeloma

What are the reasons for blood cancer?

Just like every other health problem, cancer can also be prevented in the best manner by being cautious of its causes.

Apart from other causes radiation and genetic disorders are majorly responsible for cancer.

All other causes of blood cancer are as follows:

  • High doses of radiation
  • weaker immune system
  • Genetic mutations such as Schwachman-diamond syndrome and down syndrome
  • Excessive smoking
  • HIV infection

Is it curable or not?

It is observed that there are many misconceptions prevalent among masses regarding blood cancer. “Cancer is parallel to death” is one of them.  Now, when we have top most treatment facilities and the latest new age methods of curing cancer, cancer is no more incurable.  Thus, the first thing you needs to understand is that cancer is not something you can’t fight.  The first step towards eliminating this disease from your body must be to make the mind that you can beat it by adhering to blood cancer precautions which are not near to impossible. However, there may be some cases where it turns life-threatening but such cases are rare and extreme in themselves. Usually, if it is identified early and treated properly you can get back to a healthy life. All you need is the finer blood cancer diagnosis.

Stages

The stages of cancer are divided on the base of metastasis. Majorly, there are four blood cancer stages:

STAGE 1- in the first stage the lymph nodes get enlarged. Cancer is not yet spread and do not affect any other physical organ.

STAGE 2- In the second stage of blood cancer the lymph nodes, liver and spleen get enlarged. One of the organs is sure to get affected, however, all organs may not get affected at the same time. The growth rate of lymphocytes gets increased.

STAGE 3- In this stage, the patient suffers anemia, all the above-mentioned organs remains enlarged and two or more than two organs get affected at this stage.

STAGE 4- This is often termed as the “last stage” of cancer as it is the final one with the highest risk ratio. Anemia is acute at this stage, however, most of the physical organs get affected.

Once you have observed the signs of blood cancer, what you require immediately are some specific blood tests which can ensure the presence of cancer.

Your blood is tested for the following reasons:

  • to measure the number of white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets.
  • to figure out how other body organs such as kidney, heart, liver or lungs are performing by examining varied chemicals
  • to detect biomarkers that indicated cancer activity

Blood Cancer: Causes, Types, Treatment, Symptoms & Signs

There are some specific blood tests, done to identify blood cancer. However, a blood cancer specialist will advise you for any blood test listed below:

1) Complete Blood Count(CBC)- It measures the level of hemoglobin, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets in your blood and gives a general picture of health.

2) Blood smear-  It shows whether the platelets, white blood cells, and red blood cells are normal in quantity and appearance or not. It is prescribed if the CBC results are not normal or unclear. It makes cell monitoring easy during blood cancer therapy.

3) White cell differential– Our blood contains various types of white blood cells. In this particular test, the different types of white blood cells are measured which shows the ability of your body to fight infection. Unusual patterns of white blood cells directly imply one of the following issues-

  • infection
  • leukemia
  • immune disorders
  • inflammation

4) FISH (Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization)-FISH is performed on bone marrow cells with a motive of detecting chromosomes variations in blood cancer cells and genetic abnormalities. It is used to know whether a therapy is working in the right direction or not.

5) Flow cytometry– It measures the number and percentage of cells and the size, shape, and presence of biomarkers on the surface of a cell. It is also done to detect residual levels of disease. This helps the doctors to identify the disease relapse, if any and restart the treatment if needed.

6) PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)-It measures the presence of biomarkers in blood or bone marrow cells. It is done to measure residual blood cancer after treatment. It is able to detect remaining cancer which cytogenetic methods such as FISH cannot detect. It is also best to detect molecular response to treatment. This makes it easy to determine whether an additional treatment is needed or not.

7) Karyotype Test-In this test a map of 46human chromosomes is used to detect and examine the variations in the expected size, shape, number and chromosomes arrangement in the bone marrow cells.

8) Blood Chemistry– It is done by using a group of tests known as “chemistry panels”, they measure the below mentioned things:

  • Chemical substances that indicate liver and kidney functions)
  • Blood sugar
  • Cholesterol
  • Hormones
  • Electrolyte balance (such as sodium or potassium)
  • Protein
  • Antibodies, including those developed from vaccinations (such as poliovirus antibodies)
  • Hormones (such as thyroid hormone)
  • Minerals (such as iron, calcium or potassium)
  • Vitamins

9) Immunophenotyping-It is used for detecting a particular kind of cell in blood or bone marrow or lymph node cells. This helps immensely in determining the better treatment.

Now, after knowing all the risk factors for blood cancer in a detailed manner, you can deal better with the disease.

However, it is always better to stay safe and protected as prevention is better than cure. The best way to stay away from any exigency is to maintain a well-balanced diet for cancer patients.

During and after the treatment the normal diet of a person changes to some extent. This is why you must consult your doctor for knowing what you should eat or not according to your health. This is because maintaining a healthy body is important to regain energy and recover from the disease.

  • Increase the intake of fresh fruits and vegetables
  • Eat whole grains and proteins
  • Avoid fried or sugary foods

If you intend to add any kind of supplements to your diet, it would be better if you consult a doctor before doing so.

Conclusion

Cancer is a term which is sufficient in itself to initiate trauma. However, you just need to sit back and relax in case it has hit you or someone dear to you. In the present world where we have the best blood cancer hospitals, the disease is no more incurable. Moreover, you can head towards Jiyo India to get access to quality healthcare treatment for a serious health issue. We can act as a gateway to healthy living for you.

Contact us on +91 8810627987,+91 8750033334 or write an email on info@jiyoindia.com for medical assistance. 

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