Neurology

Huntington's disease (HD) is an inborn disease that sources particular nerve cells in the brain to throw away. People are born with the malfunctioning genes, but symptoms generally don't come into significance until middle age. Early symptoms of HD may comprise, clumsiness, uncontrolled movements and balance problems. Afterwards, HD can take away the capacity to walk, talk, and ingest. Some individuals stop identifying family members. Others are aware of their environment and are able to convey emotions.

There is no treatment for it. Medicines can help out administer some of the warning sign, but cannot slow down or prevent the disease.

Muscular dystrophy (MD) is an assemblage of more than 30 inborn diseases. They all cause both weakness and loss of muscles. Some types of MD become visible in infancy or childhood. Others may not emerge until middle age or later on. The different types can differ in whom they have an effect on, which muscles they affect, and what the warning signs are. All forms of MD grow poorer as the person's muscles get weaker. Generally people with MD finally lose the ability to walk.

There is no treatment for muscular dystrophy. Treatments can assist with the symptoms and prevent some complications. They consist of physical and speech therapy, orthopaedic devices, and medications. Some individuals with MD have gentle cases that get worse slowly. Others cases are immobilizing and severe.

Spina bifida is a defect of neural tube. It is a type of birth fault of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. It occurs if the spinal column of the foetus doesn't close fully during the first month of pregnancy. This can injure the nerves and spinal cord. Screening tests for the period of pregnancy can test for spina bifida. Occasionally it is confirmed only after the baby is born. The warning signs of spina bifida differ from person to person. Most people with spina bifida are of normal intelligence. Some people require assistive devices such as braces, wheelchairs or crutches. They may develop learning problems, urinary and bowel problems, or hydrocephalus, an accumulation of fluid in the brain.

Meningitis is an inflammation of the thin tissues that enclose the brain and spinal cord, called the meninges. There are many kinds of meningitis. The most familiar is viral meningitis, which you acquire when a virus penetrates the body through nose or mouth and move towards the brain. Bacterial meningitis is uncommon, but can be lethal. It generally starts with a bacterium that causes a cold-like infection. It can obstruct blood vessels in the brain and may direct to stroke or brain damage. It can also damage other organs. Pneumococcal and meningococcal infections can result in bacterial meningitis. Anybody can have meningitis, but it is more widespread in persons whose bodies have problem in fighting infections. Meningitis can grow quickly. You should look for medical care quickly if you have:-

  • An unexpected fever
  • A rigorous headache
  • An inflexible neck

Early treatment can assist in preventing severe problems as well as death. Vaccines can stop some of the bacterial infections that cause meningitis.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a form of movement disorder. It takes place when nerve cells in the brain don't manufacture adequate amount of a brain chemical called as dopamine. At times it is genetic, but in most cases do not appear to run in families. Indications begin slowly, frequently on one part of the body. Afterwards they affect both sides. They include-

  • Trembling/shaking of hands, arms, legs, jaw and face
  • Inflexibility of the arms, trunk and legs.
  • Slow movement
  • Poor stability and coordination

As symptoms get poorer, people with the sickness may have difficulty in walking, talking, or doing easy tasks. They might also have troubles such as depression, sleeping problems, or trouble in chewing, swallowing, or speaking.

It can be difficult to diagnose PD as there is no diagnostic test for it. Doctors utilize a health check history and a neurological examination for diagnoses.

PD generally begins approximately at age 60, but it may start earlier also. It is more frequent in men than in women. There is no treatment for PD. A range of medicines at times can help symptoms significantly.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is mainly frequent type of dementia among elder people. Dementia is a brain disorder that dangerously influences a person's capability to carry out every day actions.

AD starts gradually. Initially it involves the parts of the brain that manages and controls thinking, memory and language. People with AD may have problem remembering things that happened recently. A related problem, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), causes extra memory exertions than ordinary for people of the same age.

In AD, with the course of time, symptoms get worsen. Patients may not identify family members. They may have difficulty in speaking, reading or writing. They may not remember how to brush their teeth or comb their hair. Afterwards, they may become uneasy or violent, or wander away from their homes. Ultimately, they would necessitate entire care. This can cause immense strain for family members.

AD generally begins after the age of 60. No treatment can stop the disease. though, some drugs may assist in keeping symptoms from getting poorer for a limited time.

A Stroke is a very critical medical emergency. It happens when the flow of blood in the brain stops. The brain cells begin to decease within minutes. There are two types of strokes in which Ischemic Stroke is most common. It is caused when a blood clot plugs any blood vessel in the brain. The other type is Hemorrhagic Stroke in which any blood vessel in the brain breaks and bleeds. Mini stroke occurs when the blood supply to the brain is ceased for a shorter period of time. The symptoms are:-

  • unexpected numbness or weakness on the face, arm or leg (particularly on one surface of the body)
  • Sudden uncertainty, problem while speaking or understanding verbal communication
  • Sudden difficulty seeing in one or both eyes
  • Sudden trouble in walking, dizziness, loss of balance
  • Sudden severe headache with unknown cause

Epilepsy is the disorder of the brain that causes recurring seizures in the people. These seizures occur when the clusters of the nervous tissues called as neurons send the wrong signals. People might have odd sensations or emotions and may behave in a strange manner. They may lose consciousness and have violent muscular spasms. Epilepsy is possibly caused by Illness, Brain injury, and abnormal development of the brain.

Doctors make use of brain scans and other tests to identify epilepsy. It is essential to begin the treatment right away. There is no treatment for epilepsy, but medicines can control seizures for some people. When medicines do not work well, surgery or implanted device such as vagus nerve stimulator might assist. Special diets can help out a few children with epilepsy.