Prostate cancer is one of the most widespread cancers in men. Prostate cancer usually grows slowly and at first remains limited to the prostate gland, a small walnut-shaped gland that produces the seminal fluid that nourishes and transports sperm, where it may not cause severe damage. Whereas some types of prostate cancer develop gradually and may need minimal or no treatment, other types are aggressive and can spread rapidly. Prostate cancer has a better chance of successful treatment if detected early, when it's still confined to the prostate gland
Men observing the following signs or symptoms must consult a physician for a thorough examination
- Blood in urine or semen
- Frequent urination, especially at night
- Inability to urinate
- Nagging pain or stiffness in the back, hips, upper thighs, or pelvis
- Painful ejaculation
- Pain or burning during urination
- Weak or interrupted urine flow
Diagnostic Tests Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test
Another minimally invasive technique where a thin lighted tube with a camera at its tip (called a laparoscope) is inserted through a small incision in the abdomen. The camera projects a magnified, high-definition image of the surgical area onto a screen. Using the projected image as a guide, the surgeon removes the prostate, seminal vesicles, and lymph nodes with specialized surgical instruments
Radiation therapy is often as effective as surgery in men who have early-stage prostate cancer. In a prostate biopsy, an urologist removes tissue samples from the prostate using thin needles. You will receive a local anesthesia before the procedure.
Diagnostic Imaging or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
If your biopsy determines that you have prostate cancer, your physician will likely recommend imaging tests to identify the precise location of your tumor and to determine the extent of the disease.
Depending on the findings of the DRE, PSA level, and biopsy, your doctor may also use one or more of the following imaging technologies to fully characterize your disease:
- MRI to determine the location and extent of the tumor
- Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), which detects levels of proteins and other chemicals associated with prostate cancer, and helps to stage the tumor.
- CT scan to determine whether the cancer has spread to lymph nodes other organs, or bones
- Radionuclide bone scans to observe whether the cancer has spread to the bone.
We take care to avoid overtreatment for men with localized tumors that are indolent, particularly if tests suggest that the risk posed by possible side effects of treatment is higher than the risk posed by the cancer.
For this reason, our doctors will perform a comprehensive evaluation to determine your risk before recommending treatment options to you.
- Active surveillanceA dynamic disease-management treatment option in which more aggressive treatment is deferred, while your doctor monitors the tumor closely for any signs that it might be growing or is becoming more aggressive.
- Radical prostatectomy Surgery to remove the prostate gland. Prostatectomy may offer a cure if the cancer has not spread beyond the gland.
- Radiation therapyhighly precise doses of radiation delivered by radioactive seed implantation and external beam techniques, including stereotactic radio surgery.
- Radiation therapy may be used in the treatment of both early-stage and more-advanced localized tumors.
- Focal therapies minimally invasive techniques for eliminating small tumors that are confined to the prostate and show no signs of being aggressive. Focal therapies minimize injury to the prostate gland and surrounding tissue.
- Systemic therapies Systemic therapies are often used in combination with radical Prostatectomy or radiation therapy as a safety measure against the spread of a clinically localized prostate cancer.
Radical prostatectomy surgery to remove the prostate gland may be an option.
- If you are newly diagnosed with early-stage localized prostate cancer that is not appropriate for an active surveillance approach, and you have a long life expectancy. For men in this clinical state, radical prostatectomy alone can often eliminate the cancer.
- If you have a rising PSA level after initial treatment with focal therapy - indicating that the cancer was not completely eliminated.
- If you have a more advanced tumor that could safely be removed surgically. In these cases, radical prostatectomy is often performed in combination with other treatment approaches.
- If you experience recurrent prostate cancer after you have received radiation therapy. In this Circumstance, you may be a candidate for another type of surgery called salvage radical Prostatectomy.
- Prostate surgery team includes experts in several approaches for prostate cancer, including Traditional "open" surgery and minimally invasive techniques such as robot-assisted surgery and Laparoscopic surgery.