Intestine is a kind of tube that runs from the stomach to the anus and absorbs water and nutrients. It comprises of three parts – small intestine, large intestine and rectum. Inability of small intestine to absorb fluids, electrolytes and nutrients from food is a highly alarming situation that can be life threatening. This is a condition when intestine transplant is advised by specialists.
Intestine transplant is also known as small bowel transplant. Through it, acute cases of intestinal failure are treated by surgical replacement of the small intestine. It is considered to be one of the rarest forms of organ transplantation. Only when alternative therapies like Parenteral Nutrition (PN) or Surgical bowel lengthening have not been effective; this surgical procedure gets advised to the patients by gastroenterology doctors.
Intestine transplant is preferred over other medical conditions due to the shortcomings present in alternative therapies.
A combination of metabolic, infectious, traumatic and nutritional complications have a negative impact on physiology and anatomy of the small intestine leading to intestine transplant. Apart from this, there are also some congenital or genetic factors leading to intestine transplant. Medical conditions like ulceration, fistulation, severe inflammation, perforation, Crohn’s disease, volvulus, tumors, gastroschisis, mesenteric ischemia, necrotizing enterocolitis, motility disorder etc. might make intestine transplant an only option; but short bowel syndrome is the most common medical condition that results in transplantation of intestine. Short Bowel Syndrome occurs after the surgery for treatment of medical conditions like necrotizing enterocolitis and trauma.
Conditions leading to intestinal failure are dependent on age. Some of the conditions mostly occur in adults and some in children only.
When there is loss of intestinal function, nutrients are obtained by individuals intravenously through a procedure called PN. It is a process in which nutrition in liquid form is provided through a needle or catheter that is inserted either through veins of the chest, neck, groin or arm. Though PN can be performed at home and the individual is able to get all nutrients, fluid and energy through this procedure, the quality of life gets severely hampered. It takes somewhere between 10 to 24 hours to administer PN. This means the needle or catheter remains attached to the body continuously for this time frame. Also, this therapy has side effects like dehydration, catheter related infections, bone disorders and liver diseases.
Surgical bowel lengthening is done through two procedures – serial transverse enteroplasty and longitudinal intestinal lengthening. These lengthening procedures have complications like intestinal necrosis, redilation of bowel and staple line perforation. Moreover, some individuals who have undergone this procedure might have to be dependent lifelong on PN even after the remedial steps are taken. This why it is not a preferred therapy.
In combined intestinal liver graft , liver is first transplanted and then intestine is reconstructed following the procedure of Isolated Intestinal Graft.
Of the three types of transplant, multivisceral transplant is more complex because too many organs are involved that require to survive a conjoined process of transplantation.
All patients with successful intestine transplant do not require PN within a year of the surgery and return back to their old quality of life. Jiyo India ensures that best gastroenterologist and intestine transplant specialists of India is at your service during your diagnosis, preoperative, surgical and post operative procedures. Just call +91 8527583838 and talk to experts and get FREE advice related to surgical and hospitalization costs across the Delhi / NCR region so that you are able to take a completely informed decision regarding your or your loved ones intestine transplant.